2016年3月7日 星期一

關於咖啡蜜處理法你該知道的事

Have you ever picked up a pack of red honey processed beans and wondered what honey processing (let alone red honey processing)actually means? Or if it’s any better than the natural processed coffee you used last week?

你曾好奇咖啡蜜處理是什麼嗎?(此文僅討論紅蜜處理)這有比你習慣喝的其他處理法的咖啡好喝嗎?


This article is for you. We’re going to look at what honey processing is, why it’s good (most of the time), and what difference it makes to baristas and roasters.
此文帶你來探討什麼是蜜處理、蜜處理有什麼特色、以及蜜處理對咖啡師和烘豆師有什麼不同的意義。




Why is Honey Called Honey?

為什麼要叫蜜處理?


The three most popular methods of processing coffee around the world are natural, washed and honey. Natural processed coffees are dried inside the cherry before being hulled and milled. Washed (or wet) coffees are pulped and then fermented to remove the mesocarp (also known as mucilage) layer before being dried and milled. Honey processing bridges the gap between wet and natural coffees; the coffee cherry is pulped and then dried with the mucilage layer still left on the parchment.
咖啡主要的處理法有分三大類:日曬、水洗、蜜處理。日曬法是在去除外殼及果膠層前直接曝曬咖啡櫻桃;水洗法是在曝曬前將咖啡果肉篩除,並用發酵來去除果膠層;蜜處理法則是介於日曬法及水洗法:將咖啡果肉篩除後直接保留果膠層並曝曬。

So, wait, where’s the honey?
那你會問蜜在哪?

The title “honey processed” leads many people to assume honey’s used in the making of the coffee or that the coffee itself resembles honey tasting notes—but in reality, neither is true. This process gets its name from its sticky, honey-like feel the bean has before being dried. Once a coffee bean is separated from its cherry, it’s left covered in a mucilage layer that, when dried, will continue to reabsorb moisture from the air and become sticky. 
蜜處理這個詞會讓許多人以為這個處理法是用蜜來處理咖啡,或這種處理法的咖啡喝起來甜如蜜,但事實上都不是這兩種解釋。蜜處理的意思來自於曝曬前咖啡豆很黏的果膠層,黏的感覺如蜜一般;當咖啡果肉與咖啡豆分離時,外圍包覆著的果膠層經過曝曬,吸收空氣中的濕氣而使果膠層變黏。




當咖啡篩除果肉時,咖啡豆外圍會殘留果膠層。



Why is Honey Processing Popular Among Farmers?
為什麼蜜處理受咖啡農歡迎?

Honey processing originally became popular in Costa Rica, who adopted it after seeing consistent improvements in the quality of their beans. Its popularity has since spread.
蜜處理一開始是有人看到用此種處理法能使他們的咖啡豆品質持續提升,而源起於哥斯大黎加,而這個處理法現在正夯。


Yet why did Costa Rican farmers decide to try honey processing in the first place? Well, a farmer who wants to raise the quality (and subsequently the price) of their coffee really only has three options: they can change the tree varietal they grow, change the terroir, or change the processing method. And just as most of you would change the grind and dose of your grinder before you start adjusting volumetrics, pressure, or temperature of your machine, most farmers would rather experiment with processing before going to the extreme of moving their farm or investing in a new varietal that may take years to pay off.
那為什麼哥斯大黎加的咖啡農一開始會打算用蜜處理?當咖啡農想提升他們的咖啡品質或售價時,他們有三個選擇:改變咖啡的樹種、改變栽種海拔、改變處理法。就像大部分的人沖煮咖啡,會想用比較簡單的方式像是調整研磨刻度及粉量,再來才是調整咖啡機的水量、壓力和溫度;而大多數咖啡農也是想要先改變處理法,再來才會考慮栽種新樹種或遷莊園這種須投資時間金錢的方式。




Honey Processing: Long & Delicate Work
蜜處理耗時、工法又講究

It’s not easy to honey process coffee. In fact, it takes a long time and you have to be very careful. So what’s involved with honey processing?蜜處理法可不簡單,處理需耗費長時間還必須謹慎處理。那蜜處理包含了什麼步驟?

The first thing the farmers do is pick only the ripest cherries from the trees. The beans are then pulped from their outer skin, and as mentioned above, left in a layer of mucilage. This mucilage layer contains a high amount of sucrose (sugar) and acids which is really the key of the honey process.
首先咖啡農要從咖啡樹挑選成熟的咖啡櫻桃,再篩除外圍的果肉,如前面所提到的保留咖啡豆外圍的果膠層。果膠層保留了高比例的糖分及酸質,而這些甜分及酸質是蜜處理的關鍵。


The next stage is the most intricate and sensitive part of the process: the drying phase. You have to get the timing of this perfect. It’s crucial that you don’t dry the beans too quickly. If you do, the flavours won’t be converted from the mucilage to the bean. It’s also crucial that you don’t dry the beans too slowly. You need to be quick enough to avoid fermentation within the bean, otherwise you’ll end up with mouldy coffee.
下面的步驟則是蜜處理最複雜最講究的地方:曝曬。時間點必須掌握良好,時間長短是關鍵,曝曬時間如果太短,則無法轉換果膠層的物質到咖啡豆中,而時間也不能太長,動作必須要快以避免豆子內部發酵而變發霉豆。

So how do you reach this balance? Well, once either laid on raised drying beds or concrete slabs, the beans need to be raked or agitated multiple times each hour until they reach the desired moisture percentage. This usually takes between 6-10 hours. After that, the coffee needs to be agitated once a day for a minimum of 6-8 days. It’s long, right? Sun-drying honey processed beans takes this long because each night the beans pick up moisture from the air, requiring more drying the next day.
那要怎麼取得平衡呢?將豆子放在日曬棚架或水泥地上,前面幾天,每個小時都要翻動豆子數次直到達到需要的含水率,這個步驟通常需耗費6-10小時。之後的6-8天,每天至少需翻動一次。很耗時吧?蜜處理法的日曬之所以這麼耗時,是因為每天晚上豆子會吸收空氣中的濕氣,以至於隔天需要花更多時間來曝曬。

Once the coffee has finally dried, it’s ready to be dry milled and roasted just like with the other processes.當咖啡曝曬完成後,就跟其他處理法一樣差不多可以乾燥處理以及烘焙了。


蜜處理法的咖啡正在水泥地上曝曬





Why is Honey Processing So Wonderful?
蜜處理法為什麼這麼美好?



When honey processing is so tricky to do right, and so time-consuming, you might wonder: Is it really worth it?

當蜜處理這麼難做到好、又耗費時間,你可能會懷疑這一切真的值得嗎?



The answer: yes, unquestionably yes.

毫無疑問的非常值得。

Honey processed coffees generally possess great sweetness and a balanced acidity with fruity undertones. The flavours are typically less powerful than natural processed coffee, but the clarity and definition of them is much clearer and more pronounced. Who doesn’t want that?



蜜處理的咖啡一般會具有很棒的甜味及果酸味的平衡,風味一般會沒有日曬的咖啡濃烈,但卻更清新、香醇,何樂而不為?


The key to this flavour difference is the sugars and acidity in the mucilage. Over the drying period, the sugars in the mucilage become more and more concentrated, and then these sugars begin to soak through to the coffee bean.



這樣風味差異的關鍵來自於果膠層的糖分及酸質,在曝曬的期間,果膠層的糖分會越來越集中,而這些糖分會浸透到咖啡豆裡。




Yellow, Red, and Black Honey: What’s The Difference?
黃蜜、紅蜜、黑蜜處理,差別在哪?

If you want to buy a honey processed coffee, you’ll find yourself presented with a choice: yellow, red, or black. You may also hear these described as a percentage. So what do these actually mean?
當你要買蜜處理的咖啡時,你通常會有黃蜜、紅蜜、黑蜜這些選擇,可能你也聽過這些蜜處理法分別保留果膠層多少百分比,而這些究竟意味著什麼?

Well, farmers will often separate their crop into different categories. Some will have less mucilage, and therefore dry quicker. Others will have more mucilage, and will need a greater drying time. A yellow honey (approx. 25% mucilage) typically has the least cloud/shade cover during drying in order to speed up the drying time, and will gain a yellow colour. Red honey (approx. 50% mucilage) takes longer and is typically developed with cloud cover or shading. Black honey (approx. 100% mucilage) is usually covered so as to elongate the drying period.
咖啡農會將咖啡分類,有些會保留較少的果膠層,這樣可以曝曬的較快,其他則會保留更多果膠層,而需要更長的曝曬時間。黃蜜(大約保留25%的果膠層)在曝曬時為讓時間更快完成,必須要在最少遮蔽的環境(雲朵、遮蔭樹)進行,而獲得黃色的外觀。紅蜜(大約保留50%的果膠層)則會花費更長時間、需要一些遮蔽來曝曬。黑蜜(大約保留100%的果膠層)曝曬通常則要覆蓋,以便延長曝曬的時間。

黃蜜、紅蜜、黑蜜處理咖啡(由左而右)




 Yellow, Red, & Black Honey: Which Is Better?
黃蜜&紅蜜&黑蜜哪個好?

So which is better?
Well, it might seem that black is obviously better. The flavours of a honey process become more intricate and hold more depth relative to the amount of mucilage left on the parchment. The higher the mucilage, the stronger the flavours.

可能是黑蜜較佳,蜜處理的風味會因為果膠層殘留的糖分帶來更精細深層的影響,果膠層殘留越多則風味越濃郁。(此乃此篇原文作者之觀點,咖啡苗認為每種處理法皆有其特色的風味,因人而異。)

Yet for coffee producers, it has to remain a business decision. Although you may produce much better quality coffee (and be rewarded with a higher price) using the black honey method, the effort, risk and cost factor increase so much that it may be difficult to consider the option. The longer the coffee is dried, the more likely it is to ferment and develop bacterial infections, leading to defects. It also needs to be agitated and cared for far more regularly, and takes up space on the drying beds for up to twice as long, than with yellow honey coffees. Coffee isn’t always about producing the highest quality cup; it’s about producing what will be the most marketable product for the farmer.
然而對咖啡生產者來說,必須面對另一個商業上的考量,雖然用黑蜜處理帶來的效益是可產出更好品質、更好價格的咖啡,但風險跟成本也會大幅提高,以至於可能影響農民使用黑蜜處理的意願。當咖啡曝曬的時間越長,發酵時越容易滋生細菌,而造成瑕疵的發霉豆。需要更頻繁地去翻動這些豆子,還占用更多的曝曬空間,最多達到黃蜜處理的兩倍之多。不是只有做出高品質的咖啡而已,還要讓咖啡農產出獲利最好的咖啡。




So What Does Honey Processing Mean For You?


所以蜜處理對你有何意義?

  • Roasters: Consistency Is Key
烘豆師:蜜處理的關鍵是口感與風味保持一致性

As a roaster, you’re usually challenged to either create blends or keep certain blends tasting as consistent as possible year round—even though most crops aren’t available for more than a season at a time. This means that understanding not only the general profile of honey processed coffees, but all other processes of coffees, is a great help in blend construction. You can more accurately make substitutions, create new blends and narrow down the selection of green beans to choose from in order to fill mentioned flavour profiles.
烘豆師常面臨的挑戰,是怎麼調出配方豆,或盡可能維持某種配方風味。這意味不僅要了解蜜處理,還要了解其他處理法,才會對混合配方豆有幫助。可以更準確地抽換豆子,創造新的配方豆,並縮小替換豆子時填補的風味選擇。

However, it’s also important treat generic flavour profiles (based on things such as region, process, and altitude) as a guideline only. There are so many different variables that affect growing coffee, and any of those can change the final product. Don’t purchase a coffee without trying it just because you know it’s honey processed. It will probably have a great sweetness, acidity and fruity undertones—but it’s not guaranteed.
然而還是要基於地區、處理法、種植海拔等條件,有許多不同的變數影響及改變。最後得到的咖啡,不要因為這是蜜處理咖啡就盲目購買,它可能有很棒的甜味、酸味和果香餘韻,但不是每次一定都一樣。

  • Baristas: Coffee Knowledge Remains Valuable
  • 咖啡師:咖啡的知識是有價值的
Day in, day out, you dial in your grinders to produce cups of liquid gold for the community. Knowing how your coffee is grown, processed, harvested and roasted can be a huge step forward in understanding how to pull the best shots possible and unveil some incredible flavours in your coffee you haven’t tasted before. Each coffee pulls different on the machine to another. A house blend that has strong chocolate and caramel flavours may pull very differently to a single origin naturally processed Ethiopian coffee that has high sweetness and low acidity.
咖啡師每天都在為大家製作好咖啡,而知道咖啡從頭如何種植、處理、收成並烘焙,對咖啡師做出更好風味的咖啡會是很大的助益,因融會貫通而能因此做出連你自己都未嚐過的好滋味。每杯咖啡都是獨特的,一家咖啡店含有濃郁巧克力及焦糖風味的配方豆,經混拌前它的單品可能是具高度甜味及低酸味的日曬衣索比亞咖啡。


Being able to understand the difference why is such powerful knowledge to have, not just for yourself but also for the consumer. A customer is much more likely to return to your café if you can explain to them why the above natural Ethiopian coffee is so much sweeter than the wet hulled Sumatran they tried last week. People love learning and will return if they think their local baristas understand what they are doing.
知己知彼,抱著求知的心去吸收各方知識,並非只是為了自己,也是為了消費者。如果你可以告訴消費者,為什麼日曬衣索比亞咖啡,會比他們上周喝的水洗印尼蘇門答臘咖啡甜得多,消費者會願意再到你的咖啡店。人都是有求知慾的,當他們認為他身邊的咖啡師知道他們要什麼,他們會再來店光顧的。


Come True Coffee咖啡苗翻譯

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