2017年5月11日 星期四

為什麼有些黑咖啡比較甜?



這裡講的可不是加糖或蜂蜜。

我們終於可以在最愛的咖啡中喝到最自然純粹的甜味。

要如何辦到?


Bitter coffee? That’s a thing of the past. Now, specialty professionals and consumers alike want their morning coffee to have a hint of sweetness – and I’m not talking about one that comes from adding sugar or honey. We’ve finally woken up to just how sweet our favourite drink can be naturally.
苦咖啡?那是過去式了。現在的精品咖啡業者與消費者,會直接在咖啡中尋找甜味,這裡講的可不是加糖或蜂蜜。我們終於可以在最愛的飲料中喝到最自然純粹的甜味。
But why is coffee sweet? And, perhaps, most importantly, how can we roast and brew our beans to maximise it? I decided to do a little research to answer those questions.
但咖啡為什麼會甜?而或許,我們可以透過烘焙與沖煮來發揮甜味的極致?筆者決定做些小研究來探討這問題。
烘焙咖啡的過程會影響甜味。來源:Vigilante Coffee



什麼是甜感
A generally accepted definition of sweetness is that it’s the taste produced by a high sugar content in food. There’s a great array of sweet substances, with carbohydrates being best known. These carbohydrates include sucrose (common table sugar) and lactose (found in milk).
一般聯想到甜味就是食物本身含有的高糖份,甜味物質最常在碳水化合物中存在,碳水化合物包含蔗糖(通常是砂糖)以及乳糖(牛奶)。
In The Flavor Bible, Page and Dornenburg provide the following insight: “It takes the greatest quantity of a substance that is sweet (versus salty, sour, or bitter) to register on our taste buds. However, we can appreciate the balance and “roundness” that even otherwise imperceptible sweetness adds to savory dishes…”
風味聖經這本書中,PageDornenburg寫道:「甜味提供舌頭味蕾最大的刺激(與鹹、酸、苦對比)。然而,我們可以透過平衡度與圓潤度,感受到食物因細微甜味所帶來的美味。
In other words, sweetness isn’t just important for those of us with a sweet tooth. It’s also an essential part of balance.
換句話說,甜味不僅對我們這些嗜甜者來說很重要,甜味也是平衡味覺的要素。
甜味是風味平衡咖啡的要件。來源:Jemmy Wijaya Shalim


我們為什麼愛吃甜食與喝糖飲?
Humans and other animals alike show a tendency to eat sweet things – and this is linked to evolution. By and large, sweet foods energise us while bitter substances might be toxic. We humans are much more sensitive to bitter tastes than to sweet foods, making our eating patterns one of the pillars of our success as a species. 
人類以及其他動物顯示出偏愛甜食,而這與演化有關。甜食給我們能量,就如嚐到苦味就是警告我們食物有毒,人類對苦味反應的敏感度比甜味高得多,這使得我們在吃東西時可以保存性命。
Most of us can remember the clenching bitterness of the first coffee or beer we tasted, often handed to us by our parents while still an adolescent. With time, we got used to it. But “time” is the key word there.
大部分的人都記得當我們在青少年時,父母給我們第一杯咖啡或啤酒時所嘗到的苦味。隨時間推進,我們也習慣了苦味。但時間在這裡是個關鍵字。
Sweetness, however, comes much more naturally to us. Babies enjoy the lactose content of breast milk. People in love, all over the world, gift bonbons and chocolates to each other.
然而喜愛甜味大概出自於天生的自然反應,嬰兒享受母乳中的乳糖,戀人們會送糖果與巧克力給彼此當禮物。
人們傾向吃甜食配苦的食物,來源:Sailor Coffee

咖啡中含有什麼類型的糖?
Coffeechemistry.com reports that in green coffee, carbohydrates make up “approximately 50% of coffee’s total dry basis”. These include sucrose, arabinose, mannose, glucose, galactose, rhamnose and xylose. Of course, not all of these sugars are soluble in water. Only a certain percentage will end up in your cup.
Coffeechemistry.com這個網站記錄,咖啡生豆中的碳水化合物,佔了咖啡總重的50%,包括蔗糖、果膠糖、甘露糖、葡萄糖、半乳糖、鼠李糖、木糖等存在於自然界的糖類。當然這些糖類並非全部都是水溶性的,只有部分糖類會煮到你喝的咖啡中。
And the amount of sugars in your coffee will also depend on the species, varietal, and production practices. The Arabica species, for example, has almost double the amount of sucrose that Robusta has – one of the reasons why it’s gained a reputation for being better quality. And you might expect a Bourbon to have more sweetness than a Catimor.
而咖啡中糖份的含量也跟品種、樹種、處理過程有關。例如阿拉比卡種的咖啡比羅布斯塔種的咖啡醣含量多了幾乎一倍,這也是阿拉比卡有較好品質的原因之一。一般認為Bourbon的咖啡會比Catimor的咖啡更甜。
Coffee cherries that ripen more slowly (for example, due to being at a higher altitude), generally develop more sugars. What’s more, honey processing is likely to result in sweeter coffees than washed processing.
咖啡果實成熟的越慢(例如可能種在較高海拔)通常會含有較高糖份,此外,蜜處理法的咖啡可能會比水洗處理的咖啡更甜。

蜜處理的咖啡常比水洗處理咖啡更甜,來源:Nicholas Van Slett

為什麼有些咖啡不甜?
Despite that, most mature, healthy, and defect-free Arabica beans have some degree of sweetness. When it’s lacking, it’s normally the result of some type of defect, such as being unripe or processing faults. The Cup of Excellence Cupping Form, for example, states: “the sensation of sweetness correlates directly with how uniformly ripe a coffee was when harvested.”
儘管這樣,大多成熟、健康且沒有瑕疵的阿拉比卡豆,在甜味上也有分級。當缺乏甜味時,通常會歸類到諸如未成熟或處理過程有瑕疵。卓越盃的杯測表格寫到:「甜味的感受,會直接反映出咖啡果實採收時熟成的均衡度。」
So if your coffee doesn’t taste sweet, does that mean it’s either unripe or defective? Not necessarily. The roasting and brewing of the beans also affect how sweet or bitter it is – and so do your peronal tastebuds.
如果咖啡喝起來不甜,就代表它未熟或是有瑕疵嗎?不一定。烘焙與沖煮也會影響咖啡喝起來的甜度與苦度,而每個人味蕾感受的強度也不同。

透過沖煮可以凸顯咖啡的甜味,來源:Adam Friedlander

為甜味而烘焙
Sugars play a huge role in roasting, especially during the Maillard reaction. Rob Hoos writes in his Modulating the Flavor Profile of Coffee: “This chemical reaction begins early in the roast as amino acids act as catalysts with reducing sugars, resulting in a complex non-enzymatic sugar browning process.”
糖類在烘焙,特別是在梅納德反應(焦糖化反應)時扮演重要角色,Rob Hoos"調整咖啡風味"這本書寫到:「這種化學反應在烘焙初期開始,胺基酸作為具有還原糖的催化劑,導致複雜的非酶糖化過程。」
Not a scientist? Don’t worry: neither am I. What this means, in layperson’s speak, is that during the roast process, a great number of organic compounds (well over 600) and melanoidins, complex browning products, are created.
化學名詞看了頭痛?別擔心,作者也是這樣。以大家都看得懂的話來說,就是在烘焙過程中,產生超過600種的大量有機化合物和類黑精,以及複雜的褐變產物。
Then, after first crack, sugars caramelize – especially sucrose. Interestingly, the longer the roast time, the more the sugar is broken down, leading to more complex and even bitter caramel compounds. That’s right: bittersweet isn’t just a metaphor.
烘焙到一爆時,糖類特別是蔗糖會焦糖化。有趣的是,當烘焙時間越長,糖類會瓦解而形成複雜且帶苦味的焦糖化合物。沒錯,苦甜感並不只是隱喻而已。

一切都在烘焙一爆後發生!來源:Matty De Angelis via Padre Coffee

為甜味而沖煮
Assuming you have a coffee that’s been roasted for sweetness, the next stage is to brew for sweetness. This isn’t always easy: Matt Perger compares finding the “sweet spot” of coffee to finding the Holy Grail.
假設你有為甜味而烘焙出的咖啡,下一步則是為甜味而沖煮。這並不是簡單的事:Matt Perger比喻找出咖啡的甜蜜點,如同找到聖杯般困難。
So why is it so difficult? Perger states that “as you move from under-extracted to over-extracted, the coffee gets sweeter and sweeter and sweeter as you pick up more sugars, then it rather quickly becomes dry and bitter”. That fleeting moment when coffee is at its best point is what we should aim for – but it’s easy to get the balance wrong.
為什麼甜味這麼難沖出來?Matt Perger說:「當咖啡從萃取不足到過度萃取之間,咖啡會越來越甜就如加糖進去一般,然而咖啡很快就會變得又乾澀又苦。」當咖啡處於最佳狀態,這瞬間的甜味就是我們追求的目標,但很容易就弄巧成拙。
Brewing for sweetness means carefully refining your recipe, and then controlling all variables to ensure you can repeat it every single time. And don’t forget that, as your coffee ages, you may have to adjust! (For more detailed tips on refining your recipe, see our curated video guide featuring Matt Perger.)
為甜味沖煮,代表你要謹慎地調整沖煮參數,並且控制所有沖煮變因,確保每次沖煮都能達到一樣的效果,並且記得隨著咖啡烘焙好的時間越長,就越需要調整沖煮的參數(更多沖煮細節及訣竅,請參考Matt Perger的沖煮影片:https://www.perfectdailygrind.com/2016/12/video-fine-tune-espresso-recipes/

為甜味沖煮需要對細節的關注,來源:Michael Flores

如果黑咖啡可以很甜,為什麼有人還要加糖喝?
A lot of people find coffee bitter, sometimes even so bitter that it’s undrinkable for them without a spoonful of sugar or two. Part of this is linked to expectations: consumers may be used to poor-quality Robusta blends that have been roasted dark, obscuring many of the sweet notes. Part of it may also be habit.
許多人覺得咖啡苦,甚至不加一兩匙糖就會苦到無法入口,部分的消費者可能是喝到常烘到深焙的低品質羅布斯塔配方豆,而這樣的豆子會覆蓋掉多數甜味,當然也有可能跟飲食習慣有關。
It’s easy for coffee professionals to feel frustrated when a customer automatically reaches for the sugar pot. Sugar can mask and even alter the flavor profile of the coffee, which has been so carefully processed, roasted, and brewed to produce the “perfect” taste.
專業的咖啡人常因為消費者習慣加糖到咖啡而感到挫折,糖會覆蓋甚至取代咖啡原本的風味,而這咖啡原本的風味會是悉心處理、烘焙並沖煮出來的美味。
But we have to understand these customers’ perspectives. As coffee professionals, we seek out the sweetest flavors in coffee because we know those are the most delightful. Why shouldn’t it be the same with our patrons? The only difference is that those people adding sugar to good coffee are simply less sensitive to the sweetness we taste. And there’s a reason for that.
但我們必須了解顧客的想法,身為專業咖啡人的我們尋找咖啡最甜美的風味,因為我們知道這才是讓人愉悅的美味。而我們的顧客這麼做不也是同樣的想法嗎?唯一的差別僅在於這些加糖到咖啡裡的人,沒辦法像我們一樣品嘗到咖啡原始的甜味,這也是其中一個原因。
有些人對甜味的感受比其他人強烈,來源:Mademoiselle.Julie

如何訓練甜味的味覺?
Today’s food is filled with huge amounts of sugar, desensitising many of us to sweetness. A 12 oz (355 ml) Coke can has around 39 grams of sugar – more than 9 teaspoons’ worth. Imagine how you’d feel if someone ordered a latte and added 9 teaspoons of sugar to it.  
現代的食物都含有大量的糖,降低多數人對甜味的敏感度,一瓶355毫升的可樂有39克左右的糖,而這比9茶匙的糖還多。想像如果有人點了杯拿鐵,加了九茶匙的糖進去,你感受如何?
Ironically, a good way to enjoy the sweetness naturally found in nature, like in coffee, other fruits, and milk, is to reduce the amount of sugary foods you eat – especially ones with added sugars.  
諷刺的是,要品嘗自然界中帶有甜味的食物,像是咖啡、水果、牛奶等,必須要減少糖份的攝取,特別是加了糖的食物。
A good exercise that can help you to taste sweetness without adding any additional sweetener is what Ida Steen, Danish sensory scientist, calls release from suppression.
有一個小實驗可以幫助你在不加糖的食物中品嘗甜味,這是丹麥的感官科學家Ida Steen所提出的"釋放壓抑的味覺"
Prepare a glass of orange juice and another of lemon juice. First, sip the orange juice. Savor its acidity and mild sweetness. Next, drink the lemon juice; it won’t be pleasant, you may shudder at the taste, but this is a valuable task for sensory development. Now, try the orange juice again. It will taste much sweeter and less acidic – so sweet, in fact, that you would never add sugar to it.
準備一杯柳橙汁以及一杯檸檬汁。首先,品嘗柳橙汁。感受它的酸質跟溫和的甜味。接著,品嘗檸檬汁,這不會是太愉悅的感受,可能在品嘗時會顫抖,但這對感官是很好的訓練。
Well-prepared coffee can be deliciously sweet by itself. We just have to learn to listen. Better said, we just have to learn to taste.
一杯精心調製的咖啡,可以清楚品嘗到自體所散發出的甜味,我們必須藉由多聽來學習;更貼切的說法是,必須藉由多品嘗來探索咖啡的奧妙。


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