2017年5月22日 星期一

什麼是咖啡Cascara?

From the re-emergence of pour-over and hand-brewed coffee to the increasing demand for tea, the specialty coffee and tea industries have experienced a lot of changes in the past couple of years. Among those developments has been a new, exotic drink on the scene: cascara, also known as coffee cherry tea. While the beverage has been slowly popping up in cafés around the globe, it can still be difficult to find. As such, those who haven’t yet stumbled across the elusive cascara may be curious about what the drink actually is.
自從手沖和現沖咖啡崛起,以及茶葉需求量的增加,精品咖啡界與茶界在這些年的變化很大。在這當中,有一個充滿異國風情的新飲料,稱為Cascara,也叫做咖啡果肉茶,即使這種飲料慢慢在全球咖啡店開始販賣,它仍然不是很好找得到的食材。因此,這些對Cascara陌生的人可能會好奇這種飲料外觀如何,嚐起來是什麼味道。



Cascara, which means “husk,” “peel” or “skin” in Spanish, is the dried skins of coffee cherries. These pulped skins are collected after the seeds (aka coffee beans) have been removed from the cherries. They are then dried in the sun before they are packaged and shipped off. These dried bags of coffee cherries are not unlike bags of tea—the main visual difference is the pieces of cherries are slightly bigger than a tea leaf and have a leathery, woody look similar to dried raisins or the shell of a nut. The neat part about this whole process is that not only does it allow for the coffee plant to be used in a creative way, but it’s also eco-friendly. Normally coffee cherries are considered a by-product of the coffee-making process and are either discarded as waste or used as compost. Now these cherries are being reused to produce a unique drink of their own. Coffee, tea or both?
Cascara在西班牙文裡,代表著外皮、殼、或皮膚的意思,也就是乾燥的咖啡果肉,這些果肉是從咖啡果實取走中間種子(咖啡豆)後的物質,在包裝與運送前先用日光曝曬。這些乾燥的果肉不像茶包一樣,主要是果肉乾看起來比茶葉略大,並且具有像是葡萄乾或堅果殼的皮質與木質外觀。關於咖啡果肉製程的好處,它不僅在耕種時有利用價值,它也非常環保。通常咖啡果肉都被視為咖啡處理後的副產物,不是直接丟棄就是用作堆肥使用。現在,這些果肉被重新利用來製作獨特的飲品。它是咖啡?茶?還是咖啡和茶都可以呢?
Cascara is found somewhere at the intersection of coffee and tea—although it comes from the coffee plant, the drink doesn’t taste anything like coffee. Cascara is often described as having a sweet, fruity taste with notes of rose hip, hibiscus, cherry, red current, mango or even tobacco. Likewise, the tea does not have the same caffeine content as coffee. In the post “Cascara and Caffeine” on the Square Mile Coffee Blog, co-founder Anette Moldvaer explains that in August, Square Mile sent some cascara to a lab in Germany to test exactly how much caffeine the drink contains. Moldvaer reports: “As expected, [the] ratio of cascara to water has an impact on the caffeine content of the final beverage, while steep time seems to make little difference.” However, she continues, “Surprisingly, we found the caffeine content to be fairly low. Even at the strongest, longest brew, the caffeine content of cascara came in at 111.4 mg/L, compared to broad range of about 400-800 mg/L in brewed coffee.”
Cascara介於咖啡與茶之間,雖然是從咖啡類的植物取得,但喝起來卻完全不像咖啡。喝過Cascara的人常會形容:甜,具有玫瑰果、木槿櫻桃、紅醋栗、芒果甚至菸草的風味。同樣的,茶與咖啡的咖啡因含量不同。在Square Mile Coffee的部落格「Cascara與咖啡因」這篇文章,聯合創辦人Anette Moldvaer敘述到,Square Mile寄了一些Cascara到德國的實驗室,Moldvaer紀錄如下:「如我所預期的,Cascara跟水的沖泡比例會影響飲料的咖啡因含量,但浸泡時間的長短只會造成細微的差異。讓我驚訝的是,我們發現Cascara的咖啡因含量非常低,就算用最濃的比例、最長的時間沖煮,每公升Cascara的咖啡因含量不過才111.4毫克,相較咖啡一公升約含有400-800毫克的咖啡因。

While cascara isn’t exactly coffee, it isn’t tea either. Because cascara comes from the genus coffea instead of the Camellia sinensis plant, it can’t be classified as a true tea. Nor is cascara quite what some people imagine when they think of herbal tea, as cascara is made from a fruit rather than an herb. However, there are a number of tisanes made from fruit, so perhaps the best category for cascara is as a fruit tisane.
雖然Cascara不是咖啡,它也不是茶,因為Cascara來自咖啡類的植物而非茶類植物,它不能被歸類為真的茶。有些人認為Cascara也不是花草茶,而是更像水果製作出來的風味。然而,有些花草茶是以水果製作,所以也許最適合歸類Cascara的應該是水果花草茶才對。

Coffee cherry tea may be a new drink for the United States, but it has been popular in other areas of the world for some time. According to the post “Buena Vista (Cascara) Tea” by coffee supplier Melbourne Coffee Merchants, “Coffee farmers in Yemen and Ethiopia have in fact been drying and brewing cherry like this for centuries—possibly since before coffee seeds were first used to make a drink.” Melbourne Coffee Merchants go on to say, “In these countries the dried cherry is often steeped along with spices such as ginger, nutmeg or cinnamon to make a fragrant drink known as hashara in Ethiopia or qisher in Yemen.” The drink is still popular in these countries today and is actually consumed more often than coffee in Yemen, as it is less expensive.
咖啡果肉茶在一些地方也許是新奇的飲料,但它在一些地區卻是熱門的飲料。根據咖啡供應商Melbourne Coffee Merchants發布的「Buena Vista (Cascara) Tea」,「事實上好幾個世紀以來,葉門和衣索比亞的咖啡農會將咖啡果肉乾燥化並將其沖泡來喝,甚至可能在咖啡豆被做成飲料之前就這樣做。這些國家會將乾燥的果肉加入香料,像是薑、肉豆蔻或肉桂一起泡,在衣索比亞稱為Hashara,葉門稱為Qisher」。現在這些國家仍然很盛行這些飲料,在葉門甚至咖啡果肉的銷量比咖啡豆還多,因為它比咖啡豆便宜。

While cascara has long been produced in Yemen and Ethiopia, coffee growers in South America (especially in El Salvador and Bolivia) have also begun to sell and export cascara. For example, Aida Batlle—a fifth-generation coffee grower from Santa Ana, El Salvador known for producing prized coffees—offers a cascara tea product available through Sweet Maria’s.
雖然Cascara一直以來在葉門和衣索比亞都有在利用,南美的咖啡農(特別是薩爾瓦多與玻利維亞)已經開始銷售與出口Cascara。例如薩爾瓦多Santa Ana的第十五代咖啡農Aida Batlle,就透過Sweet Maria’s來提供咖啡果肉茶。
As with most tisanes, cascara is made by steeping the dried coffee cherries in hot water. Because coffee cherry tea is relatively new to the United States, there is no exact recipe for brewing the perfect cup. This provides room for cafés to experiment with water-to-tea ratios and steeping times. As a general guideline, Square Mile suggests using a heaping tablespoon or two, about five to seven grams, per eight-ounce cup of water just off the boil. While cascara is already fairly sweet, some people recommend adding a little honey or sugar for extra flavor. Another option is to add ginger, nutmeg or cinnamon to the drink for a take on the historic qisher.
如同多數花草茶,Cascara是由乾燥咖啡果肉加入熱水製成,由於咖啡果肉茶相較於一些國家較新奇,尚未有人發表最適合沖煮的配方,這讓店家可以測試沖泡的比例與浸泡時間。Square Mile建議使用一滿匙或兩滿匙,約五到七克的果肉,搭配煮沸後八盎司(240克)的水來沖泡。雖然Cascara已有甜味,有些人建議可以加入一些蜂蜜或糖來增添風味,也可以在裡面加入薑、肉豆蔻或肉桂來品嘗很有歷史的Qisher(葉門咖啡果肉茶)。


Cascara can also be cold brewed and served as an iced tea—Verve Coffee Roasters’ website offers the following directions: “Use six tablespoons of tea for every 10 ounces of cold water. Place tea in water and let stand in the fridge for 24 hours. Strain and enjoy.” If cafés want to skip the straining when making hot or cold cascara, they can try brewing the tea with a French press or using tea filters.
Cascara也可以用冷泡萃取並以冰茶的方式呈現-Verve Coffee Roaster的網站提供以下沖泡方法:使用六湯匙的果肉乾搭配10盎司(300)冷水,將茶放入冰箱放置24小時後,再過濾就可以飲用。「如果咖啡店想要在熱或冷Cascara中省略過濾的步驟,可以使用法式濾壓壺或沖茶器來泡」。

When purchasing cascara for coffee cherry tea, avoid confusing it with cascara sagrada, or Rhamnus purshiana. While this tea sounds similar to cascara, it is quite different: Cascara sagrada is the dried tree bark from the California buckthorn tree and is often used for laxative purposes. Although cascara remains somewhat rare, it can be found at several roasteries around the United States, Europe and Australia. Café owners interested in bringing cascara to their shops can purchase the tea from the aforementioned Sweet Maria’s or from roasters who sell their products wholesale, such as Square Mile Coffee Roasters and Verve Coffee Roasters.
在購買要做成咖啡果肉茶的Cascara時,要避免和Cascara Sagrada(通便劑)或Rhamnus Purshiana(表面活性劑)搞混。雖然在發音上聽來很類似,但Cascara Sagrada是加州沙棘樹皮的乾燥物,且常用作通便用途。雖然Cascara不常見,也可以在美國、歐洲和澳洲各地的烘豆坊找到。有意將Cascara進到店裡的咖啡店主,可以從上述的Sweet Maria或者銷售他們的批發產品的烘焙商那裡購買,比如Square Mile Coffee RoastersVerve Coffee Roasters
 台中審計店也有販賣這種果肉茶喔!

Coffee cherry tea also gives café operators a great talking point as they interact with customers. Many people are fueled by coffee, but rarely do they consider more than the taste of the coffee and what they like to add to it. Cascara remedies this; the dried cherries serve as a tool to teach people about where coffee comes from and how it’s made. The result is win-win: Cafés have the opportunity to educate and expand their audience, while consumers learn more about the coffee industry and try something new.
咖啡果肉茶也提供咖啡店經營者與顧客互動的好方法,許多人喝咖啡提神,卻很少在意喝到的風味以及想加什麼到咖啡裡喝,Cascara可以彌補這點,咖啡果乾輔助來讓大家知道咖啡從哪裡來而且如何製成。這種雙贏局面:咖啡店可以透過咖啡果肉茶的呈現,來讓大家知道並擴大消費者族群,因為大家變得對咖啡更了解,然後也嘗試了新的東西。

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