2017年6月5日 星期一

自家烘焙入門

除了自己磨豆子、煮咖啡外,現在越來越多人愛咖啡的人,還會買生豆自己在家烘焙。
但要怎麼開始呢?只用平底鍋或烤箱嗎?看看這篇文章吧!

There’s nothing quite like roasting your own beans. You get to enjoy the smell of fresh-roasted coffee wafting through your home, and the satisfaction of drinking beans you roasted yourself, to your own preferences.

要享受新鮮現烘的咖啡豆及咖啡香四溢的美好,沒有什麼比得上自己烘焙咖啡豆更棒!
What’s more, you’ll discover all the notes and flavours you can bring out in a coffee. You’ll find the differences between origins, altitudes, varietals, processing methods, your roast profiles, and more. And this will push you even further.
此外,你也會因此發現到咖啡中許多其他的風味,也會找出產地、海拔、品種、處理法以及烘焙手法等的差異。這會幫助你更了解咖啡。
So if you’re ready to begin home roasting, I’m here to help you out by sharing the essential items you need to buy. Note: there is one more you’ll need that’s not listed here, but you can’t buy it. And that’s because your five senses are key for developing your craft. The rest, though, you can add to an online shopping cart right now. Let’s get started!
所以開始自家烘焙前,作者在此分享必須準備的物品,但要記得可能有未在這列出的物品,但有些東西你可能買不到。這也是為什麼需要五種感官來輔助烘焙手法。其他的東西,都可以在網路上買到,讓我們開始吧!




A starter roasting kit ready to use. Credit: Jason G.
入門烘豆者所需要的物品,來源:Jason G.

1. A Sample Roaster

1.簡單的烘焙機器

You have a few different options here, depending on how much you want to spend and what features you’d like. Some people like to start with a popcorn machine or even give pan roasting a go. These are inexpensive options that won’t give you a lot of control over your roast, but will provide some insight into how the beans react to heat. Once you know you’re committed to roasting, and it’s not just a fad, you can then upgrade.
這裡有一些選擇,取決於預算以及期望的機器特性。有些人會選擇用爆米花機或甚至用平底鍋,這些較經濟的選擇,但卻無法讓你操控烘焙的變因,也無法觀看烘焙中豆子對熱的反應,當你決定要認真烘豆時,你可以將器具升級。
If or when you’re looking for something with a little more potential, you need a home roaster. These will allow you to control the temperature and time of your roast, as well as offering additional functions.
假如你想找較實用的機器,你會需要一台家用烘焙機,可以讓你控制烘焙時的溫度、時間,以及其他附加功能。
Take the Behmor 1600 Plus, for example: it’s an affordable machine that allows you to roast up to a pound of coffee, provides pre-set profiles for particular bean types as well as the ability to overwrite them, and has smoke suppression technology. Having been designed for coffee rather than for popcorn, it has a built-in cooling period and a drum that ensures even roasting.
Behmor 1600Plus為例,這是多數人可負擔得起,一次可烘一磅的機器,可以為特定豆子設定參數也可以覆蓋原廠設定,也有排煙功能。由於這機器是設計給咖啡而非爆米花,它擁有內建自動冷卻系統以及滾筒,確保烘焙均勻程度。

Home roasting? It can be a fun new hobby! Credit: Brian Kendall
在家烘焙?可以培養新嗜好!來源:Brian Kendall

2. Green Beans

2.咖啡生豆

You can’t roast coffee without the beans! But remember that they’re not all the same. If you’re at the stage where you want to start home roasting, no doubt you’re aware of the impact of origin, varietal, production practices, processing methods, and more on the flavour. But these also affect the roast profile you need to use.
烘焙需要的就是生豆,但要知道生豆有所區別,當開始在家烘焙,你會注意不同產區、品種、生產履歷、處理法甚至風味描述,但這些都會影響烘焙。
For example, Bean density is affected by multiple factors – the most easy-to-measure one being altitude. Denser beans generally have better flavour development, and because they’re denser they absorb heat differently. Use too low a charge temperature and they’ll bake. However, use too high a temperature on soft beans, and they’ll scorch.
例如,咖啡豆的密度會由很多因素影響,最容易衡量的就是種植海拔。密度較高的豆子有較好的風味,並且因為高密度受熱方式會不同,若使用太低溫烘焙會有焙烤味。然而,若在軟豆(低密度)使用太高溫烘焙則會燒焦。
Fortunately, you can recognise density by looking at the green bean’s centre line. The more open it is, the softer the bean. Alternatively, to compare different beans, you can try this cheap DIY hack.
好處是你可以看生豆中間那條線辨別密度,若越開則豆子越軟,為了比較不同豆子,可以試試看以下DIY所教的:https://goo.gl/Pn1ljD
There are several books and online sources for information like this. Certain home roasters will also come with different set profiles, so you can ease your way into roast profile manipulation.
有些書及網站針對此部分探討,有些在家自烘的人也會寫不同的設定教學,所以可以簡單就找到烘焙教學並操作。

Get to know your green beans before you roast them. Credit: roastworks.coffee.co
烘豆前要先了解生豆,來源:roastworks.coffee.co

3. A Scale

3.磅秤

Scales aren’t just necessary for brewing. So if you don’t have one yet, get it ASAP. It’ll allow you to measure the weight of both your green and roasted beans – letting you know both how much you’re roasting and how much weight your beans are losing in the roast.
秤對於沖煮而言是不可或缺的,所以如果沒有秤的人趕快入手吧。可以用來測量生豆與烘焙後的熟豆重量,讓你知道你烘了多少咖啡,並在烘焙時咖啡豆流失多少重量的水份。



Scales: not just for brewing coffee! Credit: friedricebanzai
秤不只用來沖煮而已!來源:friedricebanzai

4. A Cooling Tray or Colander

4.冷卻托盤或濾網

This one is only necessary if your roaster doesn’t come with a cooling tray. Since your beans will continue reacting to the heat even after the roast has finished, it’s important to bring down internal temperature as quickly as possible.
如果烘豆機沒有冷卻托盤,你會需要冷卻托盤,當豆子已經烘焙完成後,其中心溫度仍然持續在高溫的狀態,所以將內部溫度下降是非常重要的,而且要越快降溫越好。
Some home roasters already have cooling trays and phases built in. But if yours doesn’t, purchase a tray or colander. It won’t be as reliable, but it’s the next best thing.
有些在家烘豆的人會有冷卻托盤進行降溫程序,但如果你沒有這些東西,買個托盤或濾網吧。他雖然不是一個最佳的器具,但也還算是可以接受的,卻是造成完美咖啡豆的其中一個環節。



Cool your roasted beans quickly to avoid post-roast development. Credit: Mark Headrick
將烘焙後的咖啡豆降溫,避免餘熱影響豆子品質。來源 :Mark Headrick

5. Coffee Bags/Airtight Jars

5.咖啡豆袋/密封罐

After the cool down phase, your beans will need to degas. There are many different opinions on how long this takes: Sweet Maria’s recommends 8–12 hours, while other people say 24 hours or even longer.
How you store your beans will also impact their shelf life. Keep your coffee in resealable and, preferably, one-way valve bags to protect them from light, moisture, heat and air. Another good option is an airtight jar, so you can reuse it. Just make sure the jar is in good condition and that you keep the beans out of the light. Otherwise your coffee will quickly become stale.
完成降溫動作後,必須將豆子釋放的氣體排除,關於這部分有許多不同說法:Sweet Maria’a建議8-12小時,也有人說24小時甚至更長時間。
咖啡豆的保存方式也會影響保存期限長短,將你的咖啡豆保存好,建議使用單向氣閥的豆袋來隔絕光線、濕氣、熱源以及空氣。另一個好選擇是密封罐,可以重複使用,確保罐子的狀況良好,並且能阻絕豆子被光照射,否則你的咖啡豆會很快就變質。

Good storage will keep your beans fresh for longer. Credit: Jeremy and Farrah
好好的保存可以延長豆子新鮮程度,來源:Jeremy and Farrah

 

6. Roasting Log/Notebook

烘焙紀錄/筆記

Want to know your coffee is going to taste the same way every time? Or to work out why you’re getting unpleasant notes or defects – and how to change it? Then you need to keep a roast log. You can use the same beans, and the same roaster, and the same basic parameters for each roast. But there are some variables you can only control and replicate if you have a record of them.
想要讓每次烘出來的咖啡喝起來一致嗎?或是找出為什麼會烘焙出不討喜的風味或瑕疵味,並且如何改變?你必須有一個烘焙紀錄。可以在每次使用相同豆子、相同機器、相同烘焙參數,但有些參數只有記錄下來才可以控制並複製。

Record everything so you can replicate your roasts. Credit: Risteriet Coffee
紀錄每個環節以便重現烘焙結果,來源:Risteriet Coffee

Home roasting is a wonderful experience. It will transform your relationship with coffee – and, for some, it may even be the start of a new career! So if you’re feeling even just a little bit curious about it, pick up the items on this list – or, for the first time, borrow a friend’s – and give it a try.
自家烘焙是個有趣的體驗,這可以翻轉你跟咖啡的關係,甚至會成為你的新事業!所以如果你對烘豆有些興趣,蒐集齊這裡所列的物品,第一次操作時找個朋友之前做過的資料或記錄的程序參考,體驗看看烘豆吧!


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