2017年6月19日 星期一

咖啡的烘焙日期能告訴你什麼?

 Desperate for freshly roasted coffee, but not sure exactly how fresh is best? Read on, we’ve got all the answers you need—and some of them might surprise you.
想要新鮮烘焙的咖啡,卻不知道要多新鮮才好嗎?此文以烘焙日期對咖啡的影響解答,甚至會出乎你意料的答案。

The Roasting Date Isn’t Everything
烘焙日期不代表一切
First of all, we need to clear one thing up. We’re talking about roast dates, but that alone won’t let you know if the coffee’s any good.When buying food, you look for the freshest items. Of course, you check the best before date. Then there are the visual cues: the firmness of an avocado, the bruising on an onion, the redness of a fish’s gills. Yet to find out how good the food really is, you need to serve it up to eat.
首先必須澄清幾件事,我們在這只討論烘焙日期,並不代表可以透過烘焙日期找出好咖啡。當你買食物時,你會找最新鮮的效期,當然會看最佳賞味期限,可以有一些視覺上的線索:變硬的酪梨、碰傷的洋蔥、變紅的魚鰓,然而要知道食物好不好吃,則需要烹煮來品嚐。
The same principle applies with coffee. Never judge the quality of beans solely on the roast dates. At the very least, you need to open the bag, calibrate the beans the best you can, taste, and evaluate.Now that we’ve established that the roasting date isn’t everything, let’s look at what it can tell you.
同樣的原理可應用於咖啡,不要單單因為烘焙日期就評斷咖啡豆,至少你需要打開咖啡豆袋,評估並最好品嚐一下咖啡,現在我們知道烘焙日期不代表一切,讓我們來看看為什麼可以這樣說。


What Does Fresh Really Mean?
新鮮究竟代表什麼意思?
Which beans are your freshest?
那支咖啡最新鮮?
As a roaster, you hear this a lot. Some of you readers may have even asked this question yourselves. My answer to this question is: Are you intending the coffee to be a gift, or do you plan to consume it within a week?
若你是烘豆師,這句話你一定聽過很多次。很多在看這篇文章的人也可能問過這問題,而我通常會這樣回答:您是打算買來當禮物,還是一個禮拜內會喝掉呢?
I like to advise customers that all the bags on the shelves are between 4 to 7 days old and this is still categorised as fresh. Yet more often than not, I receive an impatient or even incredulous look followed by a clarification that they are looking for coffee roasted yesterday or that same day.
我會建議顧客選擇烘焙後4-7天的咖啡豆,這樣的也被定義為新鮮咖啡豆,然而通常我這樣問,客人的回應常會是不耐煩甚至不客氣地說:我在找昨天或今天剛烘好的咖啡。
Some claim that coffee needs nothing more than 24-hours and that it’s at it’s peak on the 3rd day, yet the coffee won’t have had enough time to age by then.
有些人聲稱咖啡只需要24小時養豆,第三天是風味巔峰期,但這樣的時間其實並不足夠養豆。
After roasting, coffees are typically kept in air-tight drums and stored overnight, before getting blended or packed the next day.
烘焙後會將咖啡豆置於密封桶並存放一晚,這手續會在隔天包裝或是調製配方豆時進行

What’s the Ideal Roasting Date?
咖啡烘焙後什麼時候最適合喝?
Treat buying coffee like buying bread: only buy enough for a week or so. Find out the best aged-period (peak) of the coffee and then work your way backwards from when you intend to consume the coffee. This will enable you to find your ideal roasting date. Search for coffee roasted within 3 to 5 days of that date.
買咖啡豆像買麵包一樣,只買一星期用的量就夠了。找出咖啡最佳賞味期(風味巔峰),然後從你要最先開始喝的咖啡往後推,這能幫你找出最理想的烘焙日期,尋找在那日期前後三到五天的時間。
Generally, if I’m looking for coffee to consume immediately, I find that anything between 8-21 days of roasting is best. However, you should always pay attention to the roaster or barista’s advice on the peak roast age for their coffee.
通常如果要買立刻就要喝的咖啡,作者認為是烘焙後8-21天最好(烘焙並保存良好的豆子,即使放了一兩個月依然有很好的風味)。然而,店家必須確保烘豆師或咖啡師,在咖啡豆風味的顛峰期時使用這些豆子。

Why Do People Believe That the Fresher, the Better?
為什麼大家會覺得越新鮮越好?
The misconception that fresher is better is, I feel, due to us third wave roasters being the victims of our own success in educating consumers. Yes, you heard that right.
關於越新鮮越好這個錯誤觀念,作者認為是因為第三波咖啡風潮的烘豆師,教育消費者之後反而害到自己。是的你沒看錯。
In the surge of artisan and small batch roasting somewhere between 2007 and 2010 (the surge of 3rd wave roasting here in Singapore), we tried to differentiate ourselves from commercial roasters with phrases like roasting fresh batches and sell by roast date instead of expiry dates. Of course, much later on, we relaxed our focus on freshness and instead added ‘Best consumed/brewed within 1-month of roast date‘ to our bags. Yet the damage was done: the fresher, the better has stuck.
2007-2010年間,第三波咖啡風潮剛在新加坡崛起時,我們試著把自己跟商業烘豆師作區隔,以「小批量烘焙」和「請看烘焙日期而非有效日期」這樣的標語來主打。當然,之後我們減少了對新鮮度的關注,並在豆袋標註:「最好在烘焙日後一個月內喝/煮掉咖啡」,然而越新鮮越好這觀念卻已深植人心。

So When Is a Coffee Too Old?
那咖啡放多久代表太久?
This is a very subjective topic and while roasting professionals often claim average age ceilings, there are just too many variables that are out of our control. I’ve pulled espresso from a lighter roast coffee (note: lighter, not ‘light roast’) that was a month old yet tasted as sweet and good as two weeks before. I’ve also encountered coffee already past its prime on the eleventh day.
這是一個很主觀的話題,很多專業烘豆師都會給咖啡豆設定一個平均壽命,這當中也有太多我們無法掌握的變數,作者曾將較淺烘焙的咖啡做成濃縮來比較(不是淺焙,只是比較淺),放了一個月的咖啡跟放了兩周的咖啡喝起來味道一樣好,但也有喝過烘焙後只放11天卻失了風味的咖啡。
Why is there so much variation? Well, the coffee itself has a significant impact, plus the ways in which different roasters apply their style of roasting can change a coffee’s profile, causing it to peak or age differently. Some coffees and roast styles allow for a coffee to remain at its prime anywhere between 14 to even 30 days from the date of roast, so it’s really hard to claim a coffee is either past its date of use or too fresh until it’s been tasted. When it doubt, ask your barista or roaster. They will always give you the best advice on a specific coffee.
為什麼有這麼多變數?咖啡本身就會影響自己,加上烘豆師的手法也會改變咖啡的特性,導致咖啡的巔峰期或平均壽命的不同。一些咖啡搭配烘豆手法,可以讓咖啡發揮的巔峰期從烘焙後第14天到30天,所以在品嚐之前都很難去斷定這支咖啡已經過了巔峰期或是太新鮮不適合飲用。當你有疑問時,可以問問咖啡師或烘豆師,他們會針對特定的咖啡豆給你最好的建議。
How to Make the Most Of Your Coffee at Different Ages
如何將不同養豆期的咖啡發揮到最好?
Calibrating grind size and adjusting dosage is crucial for bringing out the best flavour of ageing coffee. The older the beans are, the more porous they become. This means that as they’re ground, the structures break down more easily, allowing water to enter and dissolve the solubles. If you use a grind setting calibrated for the same coffee a couple of weeks earlier, it leads to under extraction and an undesirable flavour on the palate.
要引出老豆最佳的風味,必須校正與確認咖啡研磨粗細、調整使用的粉量,豆子放越久會有越多孔洞,這代表當你研磨這些咖啡豆時,他們會更容易崩解,讓熱水可以更容易溶解物質。如果使用同樣的研磨粗細,來研磨這樣的老豆和較新鮮的咖啡,這會導致萃取不足,並使沖出來的咖啡不好喝。
Tasting is believing; taste profiles are subjective, quality is usually not. So calibrate that grinder, pull those shots, and taste your coffee quality.
嚐過方知好壞;味覺感受是主觀的,而品質則非主觀的。校正磨豆機、煮些咖啡,品嚐咖啡的品質吧!

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